DATE: 60 AD
Luke, referred to as the “beloved physician” (Col. 4:14), was a close friend and companion of Paul. He is the only Gentile author in the New Testament. We know nothing about his early life or his conversion. We do know that he was not an eyewitness of the life of Jesus (Luke 1:2). Luke was a physician by profession, but also an evangelist. He wrote this gospel and the book of Acts. He also accompanied Paul in missionary work and was with Paul at the time of Paul’s martyrdom (2 Tim. 4:11).
Luke tells that he consulted eyewitnesses (1:2), and that he sifted and arranged the information (1:3) under the guidance of the Holy Spirit with the purpose to instruct Theophilus in the historical reliability of the faith (1:4). This is a carefully researched and documented writing.
The Gospel of Luke was written to present Jesus as the Son of Man. It presents Jesus in His humanity and contains an unusual interest in medical matters (Luke 4:38; 7:15; 8:55; 14:2; 18:15; 22:50). The genealogy of Mary is given in chapter 3, although it lists Joseph (for an explanation on this, read: Why are There Two Different Genealogies for Jesus?) Mary’s lineage is recorded all the way back to Adam, again reflecting the nature of this book telling of Jesus’ humanity. Additionally, much attention is given to recounting the events surrounding the birth of Christ. Only Luke records the appearance of angelic messengers to Zacharias and Mary, the songs of Elizabeth and Mary, the birth and childhood of John the Baptist, the visit of the shepherds when Jesus was born, the presentation of Jesus in the Temple, and details of Christ’s childhood.
Significant accounts in Luke:
- Zaccheus (19:1-10)
- the penitent thief (23:39-43)
- the parables of the prodigal son (15:11-32)
- the penitent tax-gatherer (18:9-14)
- the good Samaritan (Luke 10:29-37)
- the one thankful ex-leper (Luke 17:11-19).
- a special emphasis on prayer (3:21; 5:16; 6:12; 9:18, 28-29; 10:21; 11:1; 22:39-46; 23:34, 46)
- a prominent place given to women (chaps. 1, 2; 7:11-13; 8:1-3; 10:38-42; 21:1-4; 23:27-31, 49).
- interest in poverty and wealth (1:52-53; 4:16-22; 6:20, 24-25; 12:13-21; 14:12-13; 16:19-31).
- four beautiful hymns: the Magnificat of Mary (1:46-55), the Benedictus of Zacharias (1:67-79), the Gloria in Excelsis of the angels (2:14), and the Nunc Dimittis of Simeon (2:29-32).
Luke tells the good news of the compassionate Son of Man offering salvation to the whole world (Luke 19:10).
OUTLINE OF THE GOSPEL OF LUKE
I. Preface: The Method and Purpose of Writing, 1:1-4
II. The Identification of the Son of Man with Men, 1:5-4:13
A. The Announcement of the Birth of John the Baptist, 1:5-25
B. The Announcement of the Birth of the Son of Man, 1:26-56
C. The Advent of John the Baptist, 1:57-80
D. The Advent of the Son of Man, 2:1-20
E. The Adoration of the Baby, 2:21-38
F. The Advancement of the Boy, 2:39-52
G. The Baptism of the Son of Man, 3:1-22
H. The Genealogy of the Son of Man, 3:23-38
I. The Temptation of the Son of Man, 4:1-13
III. The Ministry of the Son of Man to Men, 4:14-9:50
A. The Announcement of His Ministry, 4:14-30
B. The Authority of His Ministry, 4:31-6:11
1. Over demons, 4:31-37
2. Over disease, 4:38-44
3. Over the disciples, 5:1-11
4. Over defilement (a leper healed), 5:12-16
5. Over defectiveness (a paralytic healed), 5:17–26
6. Over the despised (the call of Matthew and parables), 5:27-39
7. Over days, 6:1-5
8. Over deformity, 6:6-11
C. The Associates of His Ministry, 6:12-49
1. The call of the disciples, 6:12-16
2. The characteristics of disciples (The Great Sermon), 6:17-49
D. The Activities of His Ministry, 7:1-9:50
1. Ministry in sickness, 7:1-10
2. Ministry in death, 7:11-17
3. Ministry in doubt, 7:18-35
4. Ministry to sinners, 7:36-50
5. Ministry financed, 8:1-3
6. Ministry illustrated through parables, 8:4-21
7. Ministry in storms, 8:22-25
8. Ministry over demons, 8:26-39
9. Ministry in death and despair, 8:40-56
10. Ministry through the disciples, 9:1-9
11. Ministry to physical needs, 9:10-17
12. Ministry of prediction, 9:18-50
IV. The Repudiation of the Son of Man by Men, 9:51-19:27
A. Rejection by Samaritans, 9:51-56
B. Rejection by Worldly Men, 9:57-62
C. Commissioning of the Seventy, 10:1-24
D. Rejection by a Lawyer (Parable of the Good Samaritan), 10:25-37
E. Reception at Bethany, 10:38-42
F. Instruction on Prayer, 11:1-13
G. Rejection by the Nation, 11:14-36
H. Rejection by Pharisees and Lawyers, 11:37-54
I. Instruction in the Light of Rejection, 12:1-19:27
1. Concerning hypocrisy, 12:1-12
2. Concerning covetousness, 12:13-34
3. Concerning faithfulness, 12:35-48
4. Concerning division and signs, 12:49-59
5. Concerning repentance, 13:1-9
6. Concerning hypocrisy, 13:10-17
7. Concerning the kingdom, 13:18-35
8. Concerning inflexible people, 14:1-6
9. Concerning inflated people, 14:7-11
10. Concerning invited people, 14:12-14
11. Concerning indifferent people, 14:15-24
12. Concerning indulgent people, 14:25-35
13. Concerning God’s love for sinners, 15:1-32
14. Concerning wealth, 16:1-31
15. Concerning forgiveness, 17:1-6
16. Concerning service, 17:7-10
17. Concerning gratitude, 17:11-19
18. Concerning the kingdom, 17:20-37
19. Concerning prayer, 18:1-14
20. Concerning entrance into the kingdom, 18:15-30
21. Concerning His death, 18:31-34
22. Concerning salvation, 18:35-19:10
23. Concerning faithfulness, 19:11-27
V. The Condemnation of the Son of Man for Men, 19:28-23:56
A. Sunday, 19:28-44
B. Monday, 19:45-48
C. Tuesday, 20:1-21:38
1. Authority requested, 20:1-8
2. Authority revealed, 20:9-18
3. Authority resisted, 20:19-40
4. Authority reiterated, 20:41-21:4
5. The apocalyptic discourse, 21:5-38
D. Wednesday, 22:1-6
E. Thursday, 22:7-53
1. The Lord’s Supper, 22:7-38
2. The Garden of Gethsemane, 22:39-46
3. The arrest, 22:47-53
F. Friday, 22:54-23:55
1. Peter’s denial, 22:54-62
2. Christ mocked, beaten, 22:63-65
3. Christ before the Sanhedrin, 22:66-71
4. Christ before Pilate, 23:1-5
5. Christ before Herod, 23:6-12
6. Christ again before Pilate, 23:13-25
7. The crucifixion, 23:26-49
8. The burial, 23:50-55
G. Saturday, 23:56
VI. The Vindication of the Son of Man before Men, 24:1-53
A. The Victor over Death, 24:1-12
B. The Fulfiller of the Prophecies (the Emmaus Disciples), 24:13-35
C. The Pattern of Resurrection Life, 24:36-43
D. The Head of the Church, 24:44-48
E. The Giver of the Holy Spirit, 24:49
F. The Ascended Lord, 24:50-53
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